The 3rd generation of computer belong to the time of 1965-1971. It was the time of interacted circuits (ICs) instead of transistors. The founder of these ICs are Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce. It is also known as microchip or chips. The interacted circuits is a combination of capacitor, transistors, and resistors. The speed of this generation of computer has dramatically increased. These system are also very efficient as compared to 2nd gen. The 3rd generation has an operating system. This is a big achievements. It allows many application to run at the same time. The mouse and keyboard were introduced to world for the first time. It has a monitor memory control by the central program. The languages that is part of the 3rd generation are FORTRAN-2 to 4, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68 etc.
Chapters of 3rd generation of computer:
The following are the chapters of this book.
A Definition of “Operating System”:
The operating system is introduce for the first time in 3rd generation of computer. Furthermore, as operating system is the supervisor of all the activity. The complete details is available at the end of the book.
Types of Systems:
A varieties of system is upgraded in the generation. Some of them are CDC 6600 and IBM 360 series. Referrer to the end of the download button to download it.
Common Properties or characteristics of Systems:
- The following are the properties of this generation:
- Concurrency: The concurrent simultaneous process working at the same time. It is also called as parallel process.
- Automatic resource allocation: The automatic resource allocation is one of the features of 3rd generation. Also a wide verity of resources is available in this generation.
- Sharing: Sharing is one of the properties of 3rd generation. Sharing allows it to use multiple resources at one time.
- Multiplexing: A time is divided into multiple intervals. This makes it the computer the multi-user because a time is divided into multi user.
- Remote conversational access: Remote access is possible with the help of this generation. Similarly, you can communicate with your remote computer especially for database problem.
- Nondeterminacy: The events can occur in an unpredictable manner. This is because of the sharing, concurrency, and multiplexing. Similarly a mechanism must be assign for it.
- Long term storage: The 3rd generation gives a long term storage in a form of hard disk. The complete information is also available at the end of the book.
Abstraction common to system:
An abstraction is a general concept or principal about a given problem. The abstraction form a basis of “Theory”. The complete description at the end of topic.
The programming involves high level languages, and program modularity. It also consist of machine independent and structured data capabilities.
Systems Programming Languages:
The need of the system programming language is a need for decades. This generation also focus on system programming.
An abstract description of “procedure in execution” is useful for understanding how an operating system implements an environment for efficient execution of procedures. To see the details just moves to the end of the topic.
AIn 3rd generation the memory is divided into main memory and auxiliary memory. The auxiliary memory is also know as backup memory.
Motivation for atomic memory management:
The automatic memory concept comes from the atlas computer. Furthermore, an idea of address and location is presented. The address is the name of the information. While the location is where information is store. Also a complete description is available at the end of the book.
An illusion of real memory in hard disk is virtual memory. Therefore, the virtual memory plays a vital role in processing.
Motivation for name management:
The virtual memory appear for programmer a large linear name space. No matter how large is the virtual linear name space. There is a few problems arises. Likewise the problem of growing and shrinking objects. Retrieving and modularity are also the problem arose.
Many of 3rd generation provides both the virtual memory as well as file system. The file system does not steal the auxiliary memory.
The segmentation appears to solve the name space problem. An segmentation is a collection of segments called the subspace. And the capability of segment name space also known as segmentation.
The concurrency is the main features of 3rd generation. Concurrent means multiple process working at the same time.
A system is a sequence of states working under the system action. The description is available at the end of the book.
A deadlock is the accessing of the resources hold by another process. The deadlock most occurs in a multi tasking systems.
Mutual exclusive means if a resource is hold by one process it cannot be hold by another process.
The synchronization means the processes must be cooperate to one another. Therefore, certain process cannot complete its working until they work with each others.
As operating system is introduce in this generation. The operating system work as a resource locator. It is the solve responsibility of operating system to allocate resource.
A Resource allocation model:
A resource allocation model is shown consist of ready, block, and terminated states. A see the complete figure just download the book.
If a resource is not well balance the performance will degrade. Therefore, a system balance has getting more importance in this gen.
Choosing a policy:
A Policy refers to resource allocating policy. There must be resource allocating policy between processes. A complete description is available at the end.
The protection refers to both technical and non technical. This become more serious when banks starting using computers.
Like the previous one 2nd generation of computer, this generation improve the system design and operation. Third generation of computer wikipedia has widely accepted viewpoints. Third generation of computer images has demonstrate the most difficulty topic that is operating system. The third generation of computer has done what is have to be. To conclude, the 3rd generation computer is more reliable, fast as compared to 2nd generation.